Tagged with Browser x

Check browser for saved passwords

Modern browsers '> (Firefox, Chrome, Edge) have the option to save your passwords, so you don’t have to enter them every time you log in. However, this is not recommended and you should use a separate password management  software such as KeePass, KeePassXC or Bitwarden.

In cases where you cannot log in by typing your password, you should check if your browser saved a password at some point and use it to access your account. It is always advisable to copy and paste the password instead of typing it to avoid errors.

Password Digital hygiene Browser Access recovery

Browsing Add-ons

There are ways to improve your internet browsing experience and make you safer while you use your favourite online services. Modern internet browsers '> , such as Mozilla Firefox, Brave or Google Chrome, have software widgets (add-ons/extensions) which provide additional options and benefits for your browser. Here are some of the best:

HTTPS Everywhere: this addon forces encrypted communication (HTTPS) when you visit a website if it supports HTTPS  , therefore making your browsing more secure.

Privacy Badger: an extension which enables you to block advertising trackers from third parties on websites you visit.

Facebook Container (Firefox only): it isolates your Facebook identity in a container tab, making it harder for Facebook to track your visits to other websites with third-party cookies.

uBlock Origin: a resource-friendly multi-purpose blocking extension designed to block ads, tracking and malware domains .

Digital hygiene Browser Encryption


The internet commonly provides a false sense of anonymity, whereas there is only pseudo-anonymity for most users. Pretty much everyone is identifiable online by their IP address , a unique identifier assigned to you by your internet service provider (ISP).

However, there are tools which can help you mask your actual IP address and provide an additional layer of protection for your online identity. This can be achieved with the use of Tor Browser or Virtual Private Network (VPN)  services.

Tor Browser is a free and open source software customised to work with the Tor network, based upon Mozilla Firefox, which encrypts  your browsing traffic and gives you a new identity, i.e. a new IP address. It is also particularly useful for accessing blocked websites on your network. There are some drawbacks however, as the Tor network provides generally slow internet speeds and users’ identity can be exposed if they do not use Tor Browser properly.

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a service which enables users to connect to the public internet through a private network, providing an additional encrypted layer of privacy and masking the users’ actual IP address. There are many VPN providers, but users should still take note and be aware of possible security aspects such as:

  • Jurisdiction, i.e. in which country is the company providing VPN services based. Countries which are members of the “Five Eyes” mass surveillance alliance (USA, UK, Canada, New Zealand, Australia) should generally be avoided;
  • No logs policy, meaning that the VPN provider doesn’t log your internet traffic made through their network;
  • Regularly performed independent security audits, which are usually documented on the VPN provider’s website;
  • Price - some VPN services are quite expensive, but you should be vary of “completely free” VPN apps , as their business model is almost certainly based on tracking users. However, some paid-service providers  offer free plans with limited possibilities, such as lower speeds and a smaller number of servers .
IP Address Digital hygiene Browser Apps Encryption Data leaks Safety


Intentional optimization of inaccurate and malicious information on internet search engines (i.e. Google), with the objective of causing damage to the target’s dignity and reputation.


Search result indexing can be manipulated using large-scale, coordinated search requests containing inaccurate or malicious information. These search requests and results are up-ranked so that they are the first visible option when the target is searched.  

The wife of a former German President filed charges against Google in 2012, claiming the company’s search algorithm resulted in the broad dissemination of  information about her past as a sex worker.


Digital hygiene Browser Damage Reputation


Intentional optimization of inaccurate and malicious information on internet search engines (i.e. Google), with the objective of causing damage to the target’s dignity and reputation.

The criminal justice system does not explicitly prohibit this or identify it as a criminal act. From a technical viewpoint, Google bombing does not imply the misuse or manipulation of personal data. Rather it is seen as a misuse of the (Google) search engine. In certain cases, this type of assault can be prosecuted via Unauthorised Access to Computer, Computer Network or Electronic Data Processing (art.302 of the Criminal Code ). In this case, criminal charges, together with collected evidence  (screenshot  of the search results, analysis of the search optimization,etc), should be filed with the police.

For harm suffered in the form of damage to reputation and dignity, compensation may be claimed through civil legal proceedings initiated via a lawsuit. Before initiating this type of lawsuit, the identity of the perpetrator as well as evidence substantiating the claim of identity manipulation and resulting harm must be provided.

Because tools to modify search engine algorithms are widely available, almost anyone can alter search results. For this reason it is quite difficult to prevent or protect yourself from Google bombing.

Google has developed an extension for their search engine - Google Meet Bomb Guard that allows users to block all uninvited participants and generic gmail accounts from organized Google Meet groups.

Take a look at other available search engine extensions  that can help prevent this type of assault. 

Digital evidence Digital hygiene Browser Damage Report to platform Reputation