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Revenge porn is defined as posting sexually explicit content without consent, with the intent of humiliation, shame or blackmail. Revenge porn is a violation of  privacy and can result in extreme emotional trauma. 

Revenge porn is a serious form of assault, and as such, it is crucial that instances are reported to the police and the public prosecutor. There are several criminal acts that can be used as a legal basis to prosecute the posting of revenge porn. 

Sexual harassment (art. 182b of the Criminal Code):  filing a motion for the initiation of proceedings is a precondition to start the procedure. This means that you must inform the police and the public prosecutor - a standard procedure - as well as file a motion to initiate the proceedings. 

ADVICE: File the motion. The courts are a crucial component of protection against revenge porn.

Unauthorised wiretapping and recording (art.143 of the Criminal Code ), unauthorised taking of photos (art. 144), unauthorised publishing and presentation of another’s texts, portraits, and recordings (art.145 of the Criminal Code ), are other charges that refer to illegal recordings, and could be utilized to prosecute cases in which video was made without consent, even if it was not posted online.  These procedures carry private criminal charges, which means that you, the filing party,  must present the identity of the perpetrator, and as many details and as much evidence as you can (for example, where the recordings are stored, where the camera could have been placed during the recording, etc.). 

Your physical safety is the highest priority when it comes to protection.

If your harasser intentionally positions themself in your physical vicinity, you can request a court issued emergency restraining order. 

Document any and all recordings, comments, threats and other forms of harassment as crucial evidence for initiating protection mechanisms and/or court proceedings.

Seek support from CSOs, women’s support networks, and others who can help you choose the best way to protect yourself. 

Report any and all recordings, comments, threats and other forms of harassment to the platforms where they have been posted, and find out more about take down procedures on  Facebook and other platforms. 

And don’t forget, even if you originally gave your consent to be filmed, this does not imply consent for sharing that content. You are not to blame for being targeted with this type of assault.

 If you ever feel that the online violence you’re experiencing, might transition into the physical world, call the police → immediately. 

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Identity manipulation or misuse of personal data is a serious threat with potentially far-reaching consequences. Whether the target is a person whose personal data has been misused, or someone else, the damage can be incalculable.

Due to the complexity and different manifestations of this category of assault, it is difficult to determine the legal basis offering the most suitable protection. In the case of fraud committed using the computer belonging to another person, and resulting in material or financial gain for the perpetrator, a criminal complaint may be filed under art. 301 (Computer Fraud).  Another criminal offense, the unauthorized collection of personal data (art. 146), must be initiated via private lawsuit, and therefore the identity of the perpetrator must be known.  

If a case of identity manipulation leads to psychological harm, or damage to reputation or dignity, then compensation may be claimed using civil legal procedures. Before initiating this type of lawsuit, the identity of the perpetrator as well as evidence substantiating the claim of identity manipulation and resulting harm must be provided.


Identity manipulation is often tied to financial fraud and online theft. There are different ways you can protect yourself from these crimes: limit the amount of money that can be transferred to another account, or taken out via ATM at one time, use at least a two-factor authentication system for your finance-related logins, and destroy old bank and other identity cards with sensitive data. 

If you are a victim of identity manipulation, inform the police as soon as possible, notify the financial institutions or websites where you have accounts and temporarily block compromised bank accounts and/or cards. 

Timely risk assessment and digital hygiene are important means of  prevention and protection.

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